Ghosts in the DNA: The Lost Ethnic Diversity of Early Colonial Virginia

The history of the British-held American colonies has an unspoken, ancient history of ethnic diversity – or “race mixing” if you prefer. Genetic genealogy continues to reveal just how prevalent that “mixing” was. My focus is on Virginia due to my deep and ancient ancestry in that place. So buckle up, we are going to explore the lost diversity of early colonial Virginia.

Nestled along the James River, Varina is a remote and quiet part of Virginia. Its vast tracts of rich farmland provide no indication that this region was once the epicenter of early colonial Virginia. Nor are there any hints that three cultures – British, Native American, and African – did more than play out parts of a deeply troubled history. They merged. That these cultures met and mixed is not in question. History books are filled with accounts of skirmishes between British immigrants and the Native American tribes who called this land home. History books also tell us of the early Africans who were brought to this area in 1619.

Source: Charles Cittie, AKA: City Point, Hopewell by Carol Tyrer via

History has been, and remains, silent about how these three cultures mixed in the primordial Virginia colony of the early 1600s. This part of their shared history has yet to be told.

Genealogy Adventures has come up with a genetic genealogy project to peel back the curtain on this chapter of colonial American history.

A little bit of history first

Varina was named for Varina Farms, a plantation John Rolfe, the second husband of my 12x great-grandmother Pocahontas, established on the James River. It sits approximately an hour’s drive north from the settlement of Jamestown. It sits across the river from the settlement known as the Cittie of Henricus, which was wiped out by a Native American attack.

Varina had the distinction of being the county seat of Henrico in 1634 when the area was formed as one of the eight original shires of Virginia. It held that distinction until a courthouse was built in Richmond in 1752.

Richmond would emerge as a major community and port by the 1750s. An investment in land transportation in and around Richmond enabled it to eclipse Varina as a colonial epicenter. The isolated and rural Varina slipped primarily into agriculture use.

My link to Varina

A number of men in my family achieved great and notable things. Patriots, entrepreneurs, inventors, explorers, businessmen, legal geniuses, and politicians – they excelled in those things the world of men hold dear. However, it has consistently been the women in my family tree who have delivered the most genuinely jaw-dropping, totally unexpected, surprises. May I have a shout out to the ladies in our trees please!?

What I am about to relay is perhaps the most jaw-dropping moment in a pantheon of jaw-dropping moments from my family’s ancestry.

From left to right: my paternal grandmother, Susan Julia Roane Thomas Sheffey, and her parents, Julia Ella Bates and Leonard Wilson Roane, Sr

My connection to Varina is via my paternal grandmother, Susan Julia Thomas Roane. Both of her parents were born in Varina.

Granny Susie had already provided a huge reveal many years ago when DNA testing proved she was the 4x great granddaughter of Patrick Henry. Yes, that one.

The Roane line is the oldest part of my tree. It was one of the earliest lines I research many years ago. It was a fairly straightforward line to research. Julia Bates’ line, however, was far from straightforward. I hit an impasse…and then my mother’s Old Ninety-Six, South Carolina ancestry took over, leaving Julia’s line, on my dad’s side of the tree, to languish – until a week or so ago. That was a good thing.

I met a group of amazing South Carolina researchers who were my cousins. It was, and remains, a thrill to work as part of an active genealogy research group. And trust me, when it comes to the area formerly known as the Ninety-Six District of South Carolina, you need a group of seasoned genealogists to work with. It’s a place that throws every kind of research difficulty at you:

  1. Endogamy (excessive cousin marriages down the generations) and pedigree collapse on steroids;

  2. A handful of commonly used first names that were used over and over again in many lines within an extensive, inter-connected family;

  3. Family spread over a vast region of a state;

  4. Family that spans race and/or ethnicity;

  5. One name ancestors;

  6. Ancestors who seem to disappear from the face of the earth;

  7. Unbelievable numbers of surname spelling variations;

  8. A thorough understanding of how to research enslaved people;

  9. Incredibly complicated and complex inter-relationships between every family in the region;

  10. Knowing how to utilize a vast array of records to do the research work on enslaved ancestors – and where/how to access and find those records;

  11. An intermediate (at the very least) understanding of genetic genealogy; and

  12. Finely honed critical thinking skills.

South Carolina made me the genealogist and researcher I am today. I couldn’t even begin to think about tackling Varina without that experience and expertise. All of the above-listed points would come into play.

Susie Roane Thomas Sheffey’s roots run deep within Henrico, Charles City, Goochland, Chesterfield, and Powhatan Counties in Virginia due to complicated, multi-layered inter-connections within her white and black ancestry in this area, collectively referred to as the Northern Neck of Virginia.

Source: County borders of Goochland County, Virginia, USA, on a map of Virginia. via

When everything seems connected

Old Ninety-Six is a demanding mistress when it comes to genealogical research. After five steady years focused in this one place, I needed a break. So I decided to delve into my white Bolling ancestry in Goochland County, Virginia. Prior to removing themselves to Goochland, this line of Bollings, descended from Pocahontas and John Rolfe, were located in…Varina.

Truthfully? I was called to them.

I came across a series of Bolling lawsuits, referred to as Chancery suits in Virginia law, involving my Bolling ancestors and/or Bolling relations. The suits had to do with the disposals of various Bolling estates as part of their probate. These suits were a treasure trove of names for those my Bollings had enslaved.

It took me weeks to add the names of literally hundreds of enslaved people on my family tree in order to research them. To-date, I have traced roughly a tenth of some 500+ enslaved people down to the 1940 U.S. Federal Census. Certain surnames from the various enslaved mulatto family groups immediately lept out at me: Bolling (For obvious reasons. They were bound to be related to their white enslaving Bolling family), Pleasants, Harris, Page, Cocke, and Woodson. These surnames were threaded throughout my grandmother’s family in Varina, as well as her family in nearby Charles City County, Virginia. I asked myself an obvious question: what were the chances that these enslaved families were part of Julia Bate’s and Leonard Roane’s families?

You see, Julia’s father’s place of birth was in Goochland County…right where my Bollings were. Did they go back to Varina? Time and further research will tell.

Her mother’s people, however, had deep, deep roots in Varina. As did Susan Price, my grandmother’s father’s mother. In short, my grandmother had a double dose of Varina. Her two ancestral mulatto connections to Varina ran deep. Indeed, it looks like the Bateses and the Prices had roots in Varina for as long as there has been a Varina.

My inner bloodhound catches an exciting scent

I had one thing left to finish before I could swing my full attention to Varina. That involved researching the enslaved people freed by John Pleasants III (1698-1772), and his son Robert Pleasants, as well as looking at enslaved people freed by other members of the Pleasants family in the middish 1700s. In all, there were over 500 enslaved people who were set free by the Quaker Pleasants family, which included the Quaker Jordan family.

It took weeks to add all of the freed individuals to my family tree before I could begin to research them properly. Again, like the Bollings, certain surnames just lept out at me, particularly for those described as mulattos: Pleasants (for obvious reasons again), Woodson, and Fleming. However, this time, there were new surnames that were of interest: Crump (I had seen this name among some of the families enslaved by the Bollings), Ligon (a noted free family of colour), and Goins/Gowen/Goings (another noted free family of colour). Ligon and Goins were also names threaded throughout my grandmother’s ancestry.

These individuals are a mere fraction of the enslaved people who were to be freed by John Pleasant III’s Will. Note some of the surnames.

All of these families were living near each other from the time they were freed. This can be seen in late 18th Century tax lists in Henrico and Charles City Counties. Julia Bates’ enslaved ancestors were right there among them, and marrying them, by the time of the 1870 U.S.Federal Census.

I actually had chills. The hairs on my arms and the back of my neck literally stood up. And yes, I had goosebumps too. I was on to something. I had actually caught a whiff of something exciting.

It was Varina or bust.

Genealogy CSI Cold Case style

Something pulled me back to the Woodson family. The reason why took less than a day to materialize. I found a Dr. John “The Immigrant” Woodson who arrived in Jamestown around 1622. John and his wife, Sarah, would first reside at Flowerdew Hundred on the James River. After surviving an attack by neighboring Native Americans, who attacked after men from Flowerdew Hundred tried to steal their corn supplies, John and Sarah would go on to build a house known as Curles Neck further up the James.

In 1623, John and Sarah were documented as having six unnamed Africans in their household.

Six Africans in 1623. Why is that significant? The first Africans to arrive in Virginia, 20+ of them, arrived in 1619. There are no other known Africans arriving in Virginia between 1619 and 1623. Hence academics believed that six of the twenty-and-odd Africans were in John Woodson’s household. Others were with John Rolfe, the Piersey family, the Yeardly family, and the West family.

DNA, enter stage right

I apologize that has taken some time to get to this point. I had to step you through the various stages, from the beginning to this point, in order for what follows to even begin to be credible or plausible…much less believable.

My next step was to dig around in and amongst my DNA matches.

Due to extreme endogamy on the white side of my tree, I am already connected to the Pleasants, Woodson, Yeardly, Rolfe, Piersey, West, and Ligon families. If I had any doubts, DNA matches with descendants of two more families – Farrar and Michaux – sealed the deal. Those last two additional families are closely allied with my Pleasant and Woodson lines.

Very short snippets of shared DNA suggest that neither the Michaux or Farrar lines were among my direct ancestral lines. These two families were cousin lines. I share less DNA with them than I do with all the others listed. Nor do I share DNA with all Michaux or Farrar descendants. So far, I only share DNA with descendants of those who married Woodsons, Pleasants, and the families these two families married into.

To kick things off, I poked around my AncestryDNA matches. I had a set criteria list of what I was looking for:

  1. People with at least the Pleasants AND the Woodson surnames in their tree;

  2. Multiple people with each of these surnames in their direct ancestry (1, 2, or 3 people in their tree with these surnames wasn’t going to cut it);

  3. Direct ancestors from these two lines who were in and around Varina during the time period in question;

  4. People who were direct descendants of Dr John Woods and John “The Immigrant” Pleasants;

  5. Well researched trees: everyone on these lines had to be thoroughly documented as per established best practice; and

  6. Had no African DNA showing in their results (this last one was harder than I thought. It turned out that around 20% of my matches who met the first five criteria had trace amounts of sub-Saharan DNA).

I had 14 matches who met all 6 criteria. My Dad? He had 23!

Here is one of my matches:

In terms of my tree to-date, the Woodson and Pleasants families should also be cousin lines. I have no known direct ancestors from either family. One approach to investigating this was analyzing centiMorgans (cMs) with people who identify as white and were descendants of both families. cMs denote the size of matching DNA segments in autosomal DNA tests. Segments which share a large number of cMs in common are more likely to be of significance and to indicate a common ancestor within a genealogical timeframe.

Based on the length of centiMorgans (cMs), DNA strongly suggests a shared common ancestor between me and a group of people who were kind enough to share their DNA information with me. Caveat alert: I used the very unscientific to do an initial analysis. What I am suggesting requires a full scientific study in order to disprove or prove what I have initially found.

On average, excluding Farrar and Michaux descendants, the others and I share between 2.0 to 3.3 cMs on an average of 7 chromosomes. Yes, those are small shared DNA lengths. Some may very well be false positives (something you have to be mindful of when working with small lengths like these). Interestingly, while small, our shared DNA overlap in the same chromosomes within the comparison group of people. I am the only one showing African DNA, the others come up as European. For the real DNA eggheads out there, our SNPs run between 234 and 640. Again, this is small, but not easily dismissible. The amount of shared DNA aligns with a timeframe between 1630 and 1690, which suggest either children and/or grandchildren who carried both African and European DNA from this community.

There are a number of reasons why I might have these matches. Too many to go into here. Whatever you can think of to ask, trust me, I have pondered it and asked both myself and others. In the end, it boils down to the most straightforward answer: while we may never know all of the names of the Africans who arrived in Virginia in 1619 – we can begin to identify their DNA. That, in and of itself, would be awesome.

So what am I left with?

At this stage, there is nothing definitive that I can say. This requires a robust and controlled scientific study.

But I am not surprised at what I think my DNA is pointing to. There were 20+ Africans who were either indentured servants, enslaved, or a combination of the two – meaning not all 20+ Africans were one thing or another.

Note: Colonial Virginia plantations along the James River. Julia Bates’ family has connections with the majority of them, all up and down the river.

Their story and fates were tied to those of the white families they were held by, either temporarily or permanently. Like the white households, they were a part of, they went up and down the James River during this early period of colonial Virginia’s history. This means the DNA of these Africans also went up and down the James River. And mixed with that of the British who held them…And the Native Americans who were also enslaved by the British during this time period.

Everything in my being is saying to me that the mulatto Pleasants, Woodsons, Wests, Flemings, Harrises, Pages, Cockeses, and Ligons in this part of Virginia are a mixture of some of the Africans who arrived here in 1619, the white families who settled these regions, and some of the Native Americans who were also enslaved by the same families.

A whole lot of Americans will be genetically linked to this mix of people, this ghosted chapter in our collective history.

Now all I need to do is intrigue the right scientists out there to undertake the mother of all American genetic studies. Little old Varina is hiding one heck of a bombshell when it comes to amazing historic discoveries.

The Genealogy Adventures team has always believed in one fundamental idea: that as a society increases its understanding of its collective history, it might be able to get past the constructs of race, ethnicity, culture, and so on – all of the man-made constructs that divide us – and begin to realize that through our innumerable life stories and shared experiences/histories…that we just might have more in common than we think.

We are available for your genealogy research project!

Whether you’re new to genealogy, don’t have the time to pursue your own research, or have a stubborn brick wall you just can’t break through: you can hire one of our experienced research team who will happily work with you to achieve your genealogy research goals. As the first Black-owned genealogy research company, our African American genealogists excel at African American genealogy! As African Americans with caucasian ancestors – our genealogists are just as experienced in researching European-descended American ancestry.

The short video below covers what we do and how we do it:

How to contact us

For more information about our genealogy research services, our contact form, and our research service contact, please visit:

38 thoughts on “Ghosts in the DNA: The Lost Ethnic Diversity of Early Colonial Virginia

  1. Dr. James Woodson and Sarah Winston Woodson is my 11X Great Grandparents

    1. I was adopted but my Mom & Dad are both from Charlottesville , VA. On my Mom’said side of the family what I do know is that her granfather’s name was Jefferson Davis Banks, he married Sophia Bowles. Jefferson Davis Banks was Mullato. His wife Sophia Bowles was not. But there was talk that they were owned by the Michie’s.

    2. My name is Travone Pleasant. I am intrigued by my last name and the history and lineage of it. As i dig could you please point me in the right direction that i need to be on. I’m just starting Mary Ellen Pleasant is a name that i came across that got me to this page. Also John Pleasant is a name that keeps surfing when i just started. Please help. I don’t have much resources as im homeless. God please help.

  2. You and I have connections in all three races. What a great history you have. Thank you for sharing this, it is a treasure. Mitzi Hammond Perkins Texas

    On Mon, Jul 23, 2018 at 9:42 AM Genealogy Adventures wrote:

    > genealogyadventures posted: ” Nestled along the James River, Varina is a > remote and quiet part of Virginia. Its vast tracts of rich farmland provide > no indication that this region was once the epicenter of early colonial > Virginia. Nor are there any hints that three cultures – Britis” >

  3. Oh my goodness!!! I’m so excited for you! We share many of the same Colonial bloodlines across teh ethnicities – almost too many to mention! Your journey is my journey, as well. 😉

  4. Fascinating! A lot of these names are showing up in the trees of many of my “Ancestry” cousins. My roots I know about are in Charlottesville and Lynchburg but I suspect they extend way farther! I am in touch with one cousin who also traces directly back to Pocahontas and she is happy to have met me! In fact, I introduced her to Genealogical Adventures!
    Keep up the good work!
    Franklin Scott Goins

    1. You may want to check out the Jeffersons and Randolphs considering your ancestry in Charlottesville. If I remember correctly, two of Thomas Jeffersons aunts married into this Bolling-Pleasants-Woodson group

      1. I believe that Thomas Jefferson’s daughter, Patsy, and her husband owned Varina at one time or another. It was in the Randolph family.


    1. The only Berrys I have so far are in Edgefield, SC and throughout the northeastern part of NC. To be honest, I haven’t researched them. However, I will keep an eye out for that surname in the course of this research.

  6. Brian, I am officially addicted to your family. Looking forward to the updates.

  7. My Mother in law was an Acuff from Union Co, TN. She had Pleasants, Cocke and Woodson ancestry. I found this to be a very interesting read.

  8. I’m another direct descendant of the immigrant John Woodson (my 9th great-grandfather; I’m in the Potato hole group descended from Robert), but no Pleasants in my direct line (that I know of yet). I have a lot of autosomal DNA matches with others who also have Woodson in their line, which in a way surprises me given that the most recent Woodson I have is my gg-grandmother Mary/Molly Woodson who married Charles Thomas Moses in Appomattox. But then I do have two separate lines of descent from John and Sarah Woodson since Mary’s great-grandparents, Jacob Woodson and Elizabeth Morton, are both descended from John and Sarah Woodson.
    I’ve recently been looking at a number of those Chancery cases surrounding surnames in my lines, and it does appear that a majority of the disagreements over property distribution do involve enslaved persons.
    I had previously heard that the immigrant John Woodson had bought the first slaves off the boat, but have never seen any documentation of anything even close to that until you just now shared it above.

  9. I have most of the names you mentioned in my files. I am a Bolling descendant. (Robert Bolling and Ann Meriwether Stith) I have other ancestors in the same area. I also have cousins that are descendants of John Rolfe and Pocahontas Rebecca Matoaka Powhatan. Very interesting article.

    1. Gary – I happened onto this thread -I am Shirley Robbins – I grew up at Bolling Hall in Goochland County VA.. My parens bought this farm in 1947 and restored the main house. I am writing a book about the restoration etc from my perspective while there.I am interested in you ! Do yu have ay documents or records ? Thanks, Shirley

  10. My autosomal DNA shows, on GEDMatch, via some of the ancestry origins tests, that I have between 0.25 – 0.85% sub-Saharan African DNA. If also shows that I have between 2% – 4% Amerindian DNA (when the sub groups that are the Americas are totaled up).

    I know that at least some of the Amerindian DNA ancestry must be true because all 3 of my living 4 grandparents told me so as a child and also, more recently, I triangulated a match with a large group of people descended from a man that, via the Y-DNA of his paternal line descendants, that could only be Amerindian. However scientifically today, via autosomal DNA triangulated matches with those descendants with that Amerindian Y-DNA, now others can scientifically prove Amerindian ancestry without it being dismissed as ‘statistical noise’ and without having Amerindian Y-DNA themselves. Likewise for matrilineal mtDNA lines although those are much less documented and occur less frequently.

    I’ve yet to find though any surnames associated with the sub-Saharan African DNA but some of the GEDMatch tests show it’s distribution in my genome. I don’t think it is statistical noise but the amount is so small I think it must go back to Barbados where a male ancestor from Ireland was captured by Cromwell’s allies and exiled to Barbados as a slave around 1650 or from Tidewater Virginia where a very large number of my ancestors came from, mostly arriving there before 1650.

    I have Bolling ancestors too although they are claimed not to be from the Bollings descended from the Rolfe/Bolling family that owned slaves. Now that you have listed a good starting point for me to see if I can triangulate with any Tidewater Virginia families that are mulatto so your work can be very helpful. Thanks very much.

    I’ve been very excited about the good things genealogical DNA has been used since its inception.

  11. The indians of Georgia have large amerindian roots The place name Jamaica can be found from. Georgia to Vermont and they all claim Indian origin.The root wordhave elements of wood and water in.thename like the island Jamaica.Massachusetts is different the suburbs with Jamaica in in their name come from the capture of the island

  12. I see many shared surnames of many matches. My family traces back to Jamestown, Charles County and includes many marriages into prominent European, Native and African families of the time. My Lightfoot family married into many of the names listed.

  13. This is incredible! I can’t wait to read follow-up information and reports. I descend from the early Bates, Woodson (Potato Hole), West and Ligon families. Have you found any Branch or Hatcher settlers related to this group in your research? What about Moseley? I haven’t run across direct Pleasants ancestors.

    I read that a Mr. Ligon helped to save the day with the Woodson Indian attack. He was a shoemaker who happened to be at the house and helped defend the family. I think his first name was Thomas?

    1. I have Hatcher relatives from the Turkey Island area. Just wondering if you went to Varina area, and if so where to do your research? He was a tobacco counter and Member House of Burgess. I’ve been wanting to go to that area and see if they have information about loading tobacco onto the ships and the possible locations. Not sure where to go research?

  14. Hi Brian – fascinated by your research. I am Christian (maiden name). My ancestors headed West but originated in Virginia. My last definitive known ancestor was John F Christian, born 1776 Amherst, VA and died 1848 Missouri. This name was given to me by my Aunt, now deceased, who traveled the country following birth/death/cemetery records well before the internet. I’m English/Welsh/NW Europe/Irish/Scottish/Norwegian. I am trying to find a link to the immigrant Christians that came in the 1600s. Please feel free to contact me or take a look at my DNA on ancestry. My Mother’s line was also very old Virginia ancestry with many connections to the Civil War and Slavery (GASP – be careful rattling the bones).

  15. Hi Sharon,

    Unfortunately, I am not familiar with the Amherst branch of the family. I don’t envy you researching anyone with the name John Christian. I’m sure you know just how many of them there were! I do have some suggestions that I hope will be helpful.

    If you are an Ancestry member, there is a book called “Adventurers of Purse and Person: Virginia 1607-1624/5” that is available for research. It has information about the various Christian family branches. Ancestry also has the book entitled ‘The Edward Pleasants Valentine Papers, Vol. I-IV’ which also has a wealth of information about the various Christian family lines.

    Alternatively, the website hosts numerous history and lineage books about the Christian family. It’s a free site. Many of the old books it has in its database are free to download too.

    I hope these options provide you with some valuable leads.


  16. I really need to talk to you. I am descended from Pocahontas as well. I have many Bollings in my tree From Virginia and I cannot determine where my Bantu/Congo/Cameroon DNA is coming from in my father’s tree. Many people think it comes from my Tuckers, which is possible but most likely wouldn’t show up on my AncestryDNA since it only goes back to about the 1700’s. I have a deep suspicion that we are related and would love to compare DNA and tree data to see if we can finally resolve lost heritage for many of us. Please send me an email to for further inquiry. Thank you!

  17. Hello, I know I’m posting very late to this, but I wanted to know if you have any connections to families in St Mary’s County Maryland. I have recently DNA matched with some people who are Bollings/Bollins from Virginia and Tennessee. I have not had this connection in my family tree…although I do know that many of my enslaved ancestors were owned by colonial families in Virginia (Richard Barnes, the Mason family, the Lee family…and several of the well known colonial families in Maryland).

  18. I am a. Dr John Woodson descendant. I also have Rolfe and Pleasant DNA on my match list.

  19. Thank you for this. Although I don’t share any of your surnames, I likely share a similar story. My DNA shows up to 1% African, and going by both documented history and DNA matches, it comes through my Goodman/Gibson line. Many of my DNA cousins on this line have the 1%, but many don’t. I wish more people were aware of the frequency of African DNA in the white population. ALL of my cousins on that line, whether they have the 1% or they don’t, are by definition descended from those same people. Whether their DNA shows it or not, they have African ancestors. Unfortunately I have been unable to trace further back to find out exactly which Ancestor it was, and I might never be able to. But it was someone who was in the Charles City County to Louisa County area by at least the late 1600s.

  20. Aloha, wow just about everyone you have discussed is my descendant. I am descended from the Woodsons, also the Pierces who took the first female from the 1619 ship (Sarah?). I am also a Patawomeck which means all those names you have cited are also in my tree. However, Rolfe is not a blood relative. Jane Pierce married Rolfe after Pocahontas death. I am related to her through descendants in the Patawomeck Tribe.
    Everyone’s stories and backgrounds are so interesting. Thank you for sharing! DEBI

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

%d bloggers like this: